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5 Data Collection Techniques According to Experts [Lengkap]

Data collection technique

In every study, usually a data collection stage is required. This stage is an important part as a determinant of the quality of research results.

In order to achieve successful data collection, you need to know the techniques or methods in the process of collecting data.

Data Definition

Data is actually a record of a collection of facts. Data is the plural form of datum. Datum is a Latin word which means ‘something given’.

examples of data collection techniques

In everyday use, data has a definition, namely a statement that is accepted as it is.

This statement is the result of measuring and observing a variable whose form can be in the form of numbers, words or images that can be obtained by data collection techniques.

From a scientific point of view or scientifically, facts are collected to become data. The data is then processed so that it can be stated clearly and precisely so that it can be understood by others who have not directly experienced it themselves, this is called a description.

Definition of Data Collection

Data Collection which means that data collection is an important part of computational thinking or Computational Thinking which definition is a method of solving problems by applying or involving the techniques used by software engineers in writing programs.

quantitative data collection techniques

Basically, data collection activity is a collective process or collection and measurement of information about the object variable of interest with a system that allows one to answer the research questions posed, then test hypotheses and evaluate the results.

The data collection component of research is generally carried out in all fields of study including physical and social sciences, humanities, business and other sciences.

Appropriate and accurate data collection techniques are very important to maintain the quality and integrity of a study, both the selection of data collection instruments or equipment as well as clear instructions for their correct use in order to reduce the chance of possible errors.

Also read: Definition of Qualitative and Quantitative Research

If the data collected is incorrect, the result is the inability to answer research questions accurately, the inability to repeat and validate the research, and can cause harm to the object under study.

The main reason for maintaining data integrity is to support the detection of errors in the data collection process, whether they are created intentionally by intentional falsification or by systematic or random errors.

Data Collection Techniques According to Experts

The data collection method is a method used in data collection techniques. The method designates a way so that it can be demonstrated its use can be through questionnaires, interviews, observations, tests, documentation and so on.

While the data collection instrument is a tool used to collect data.

Because it is a tool, the instrument can be in the form of checklist sheets, questionnaires, namely open and closed questionnaires, interview guidelines, camera photos and others.

There are three data collection techniques commonly used, including:

1. Interview

interview data collection techniques

In general, the interview is a conversation between two or more people and takes place between the source and the interviewer.

The purpose of the interview is to obtain accurate and precise information directly from trusted sources.

This activity has a direct influence on data collection techniques in a study.

Interview is a technique that can be done in the process of collecting data which is done through face-to-face and direct question and answer between the researcher and the resource person.

Along with the development of technology, the interview method can also be done through certain media such as telephone, email or skype.

Interviews are divided into two categories, namely:

Structured Interview

In such a structured interview, the researcher knows exactly what information to extract from the informant. Researchers usually have made a list of questions systematically.

Researchers can also use various research instruments such as recorders, cameras for photos and other instruments.

Unstructured Interview

Unstructured interviews are actually a data collection technique in the form of free interviews.

The researcher did not use an interview guide that contained specific questions, but only contained important points from the problem that the respondents wanted to explore.

2. Observation

data collection techniques pdf

Basically, the definition of observation is an activity towards a process or object with the intention of feeling and understanding knowledge of a phenomenon based on previously known knowledge and ideas.

Observation is one of the complex data collection methods because it involves various factors in its implementation.

Observational data collection methods are not only used to measure respondents’ reactions, but can also be used to record various phenomena that occur.

Observational data collection techniques are suitable for research that aims to study human behavior, work processes and natural phenomena.

This method is also very good for respondents whose quantity is not too large. The observation data collection method itself is divided into two categories, including:

Participant Observation

In the participant observation method, the researcher will be directly involved in the daily activities of the person or situation being observed as a source of research data.

Non Participant Observation

In contrast to participant observation, non-participant observation is an observation method in which the researcher does not participate directly in the activity or process being observed during the observation process.

3. Questionnaire

documentation data collection techniques

Questionnaire is a method of collecting data by asking written questions to be answered in writing by the respondents.

Questionnaire is basically a collection of written questions that are used to obtain information from respondents about themselves or things they know.

4. Questionnaire

secondary data collection techniques

Questionnaires are actually a more efficient data collection technique because researchers already know with certainty the variables to be measured and researchers know what is expected of the respondents.

In addition, the questionnaire is also suitable if used on a fairly large number of respondents and spread over a wide area.

Based on the form of the questions, the questionnaires can be categorized into two types, namely open questionnaires and closed questionnaires.

Questionnaire open is a questionnaire that gives freedom to the object of research to answer. Meanwhile, closed questionnaire namely a questionnaire that has provided answer choices to be chosen by the object of research.

Many studies currently also apply the questionnaire method which has a semi-open form.

Thus, the answer choices have been given by the researcher, but the research object is still given the opportunity to answer according to their wishes.

5. Document Study

qualitative data collection techniques

Document study is a method of collecting data that is not addressed directly to the research subject.

Document study is a type of data collection that examines various kinds of documents that are useful for analysis.

Documents that can be used in data collection are divided into two, namely primary and secondary.

Primary document A document written by someone who directly experienced an event, such as an autobiography. Whereas secondary document ie documents written based on other people’s reports or stories, such as biographies.

Knowing and understanding several data collection methods or techniques can make it easier for you to carry out the research process.

Collecting data that is in accordance with facts and field conditions will affect the quality of your research results.